Reproductive Cloning

Reproductive Cloning

Group 40

The creation of genetically identical copy of human is Human cloning. It is further theoretically divided into two: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning.  Cloning of cells for the treatment of diseases is therapeutic cloning whereas producing an artificial clone of a human is reproductive cloning. Reproductive cloning and its possibility has raised various controversies about its ethical implications and legality. Should we extend the research of therapeutic cloning into reproductive cloning?

For research into reproductive cloning

Reproductive CloningAs both reproductive and therapeutic cloning based on a similar technique which involves the in-vitro generation of a human embryo, prohibiting reproductive cloning is likely to result in severely hindering the therapeutic cloning. In the field of medicine, reproductive cloning could be used to cure life threatening disease. Reproductive cloning could also lessen the number of patients waiting for organ replacement, fast recovery of traumatic stress.  Reproductive cloning could aid in our understanding of genetics and as a result find a permanent solution to the genetic diseases.  As a result, genetic diseases could be eliminated. Moreover, the cloning technique is beneficial for improving the pregnancy success rate. It is a useful tool that can help those who has difficulties to have a baby by cloning the eggs used during IVF.

The possibility of cloning a human has raised a lot of controversies, ethical concerns and debate since the very beginning. The complexity of this issue itself and the prejudice of the people against reproductive cloning are the reasons of the differing opinions among the people and the ban of this novel technology. If the scientists, researchers and medical practitioners involve in the stem cell research come together they will be able to create an alternative framework where reproductive cloning is also viewed as an individual and a species enhancement technology by the people which could convince UN and other nations in the upliftment of its ban.

Cloning as a concept is not new – humans have been cloning plants and animals for decades. One might argue that reproductive cloning is just the next step in the evolution of humans.

Kantian theory states that the rightness or wrongness of actions does not depend on their consequences but on whether they fulfill our duty. From the Kantian standpoint as an engineer, the research in reproductive cloning is hugely beneficial since it gives the potential to reduce the suffering of a massive number of people by preventing many life-threatening diseases. Preventing the research might prevent the problem from ever being solved. This understanding also ignores the opinion of clones being manufactured like objects in the laboratory, opposition to the reproductive cloning. The theory also counters the argument against reproductive cloning to produce super humans, which may exacerbate inequality. However, research is not normally, if taken with Kantian theory, limited by whether the results may or may not lead to inequality. Additionally, from an economic perspective, in a utilitarian sense it could save money via removing the need to treat people with hereditary conditions.

Against research into reproductive cloning

Therapeutic clone exerts positive influences on medical engineering, however, if bioengineer keep extending research into reproductive cloning, the problems it brings to the ethic and society cannot be neglected. The impact of reproductive clone on the right to life and social ethics has triggered a strong public dispute. Moreover, reproductive clone is not well developed which has a low fertility rate. For example, the success of Dolly’s cloning experienced the failure of 277 cloned sheep which mostly are deformed. Who should take responsibility for the death of their lives.

The permission of governments, the funds from sponsors and study of researchers lead the extension into reproductive cloning. Reproductive technology can bring considerable economic benefits and reputation to governments, investors and researchers. Therefore, those kinds of people seek fame and gain continuously, developing irrational application in clone technology.

For example, Clonaid, which is an American-based human cloning organization, was researching on cloning human beings and claimed a baby called Eve was cloned in 2002. Human cloning will change the original fertility model and ethic relationship. Mendel’s genetic law points out that the genetic traits of an organism are controlled by genetic factors. The process of hybridization can increase the diversity of gene combination. However, the cloned creature is a copy of an individual and results in a completely same gene which might lead to a potential risk that the extinction of the whole clone-generated population caused by a disease. In addition, clones are manufactured like objects in the laboratory, and this behaviour greatly violates their dignity and rights. Moreover, with the advancement of genetics and reproductive cloning it could be used to produce humans with superior traits, which may exacerbate inequality. Thus, as bioengineer, reproductive clone should not be researched, following the codes of conduct and moral codes.

Reproductive clone betrays the professional ethics and principle of engineer in the view of virtue ethics, because life and dignity of clones are damaged severely by this kind research. Besides according to utilitarianism, ethic behaviours should keep in line with the interests of most people and it approves or disapproves of an action based on the amount of pain or pleasure it bring. Therapeutic clone possibly can bring benefits to most people; however, reproductive clone is profitable for quite limited people who is rich and powerful. Also, reproductive cloning uses in-vitro generation of human embryo that is killing of a life to develop or save another life which is morally unacceptable. Thus, research extension into reproductive clone is unethical and against engineers’ professional responsibility.

Conclusion

The main problem is that there is still lots of speculation surrounding the technology. Regarding the use of reproductive cloning, the exact boundary capabilities and consequences have not been clearly defined. However, remarkable benefits from the prospects of novel cloning technique cannot be neglected. For this reason, it is our viewpoint that the use of reproductive cloning should be permitted, but with adequate regulation and laws. For its effective implementation there is an urgent need to make all the relevant stakeholders aware about the ethical implications of this technology.

 

77 thoughts on “Reproductive Cloning

  1. Human cloning technology has important implications for the medical field. If the government can strictly control the supervision of cloning technology, it will not have a bad influence on society, and cloning technology will be more used to treat diseases. I strongly agree with cloning technology.

    1. To some degree, I agree with you, proper use of clone technology is beneficial for human being. However, the point is how can we ensure nobody will abuse clone technology? That is what we want to cope with.

  2. I like the introduction. It’s very clear, you define what reproductive and therapeutic cloning are and ask the question that forms the crux of the article. Excellent.

    In the case for you discuss Kantian theory in depth and utilitarianism too. What about virtue ethics? Does virtue ethics support the case for?

    After my lecture today, I said that ethics helps us to make our case why we should or shouldn’t do something. As engineers we have a tendency to think about how we can do something.

    In the case against, your final paragraph opens up a host of questions.

    “Reproductive clone betrays the professional ethics and principle of engineer in the view of virtue ethics, because life and dignity of clones are damaged severely by this kind research.” – expand this, what particular virtues are betrayed? The medical practioner’s code to protect life?

    ” Besides according to utilitarianism, ethic behaviours should keep in line with the interests of most people and it approves or disapproves of an action based on the amount of pain or pleasure it bring. Therapeutic clone possibly can bring benefits to most people; however, reproductive clone is profitable for quite limited people who is rich and powerful.” This is good, you say which theory it works against and why!

    “Also, reproductive cloning uses in-vitro generation of human embryo that is killing of a life to develop or save another life which is morally unacceptable.”

    There is a heated debate on this particular topic. No need for you, or me, to enter into it but say why some object to the killing of embryos. Is is virtue ethics again?

    “Thus, research extension into reproductive clone is unethical and against engineers’ professional responsibility.” Cite from a Code of Conduct?

    1. No, virtual ethics dos not support the reproductive cloning because to virtue ethics where virtue is the measurement of morality, with virtue being a desirable or ‘good’ character attribute. And in reproductive cloning the life of the clone is severely compromised because of the bias of the people against the clone as they are genetically similar to the donor . And also some clones are created for the sole purpose to benefit others like these clone are harvested for the organs which does no good to them. So virtual ethics is against reproductive cloning.

      Thank you so much for your opinion as it has given us a new prespective to think. We really appreciate it

  3. As a student of mechanical engineering, I don’t know much about biological engineering. But after browsing the introductory part, I clearly understood what is the therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning.This article is mainly about whether engineers research cloning techniques from therapeutic to reproductive cloning. In my opinion, no matter what kind of cloning technology, they are not wrong. The purpose of using these technologies is the key. I support continuing research on this technology, whether it is actually applied or not, but at least this is human progress.

    1. Thank you for your comment.
      In your comment, I understand what you mean. Your point is to support the development of cloning technology to the stage of reproductive cloning and your theoretical basis is similar to Kant’s theory. The starting point for engineers and scientists is good. They are contributing to human progress.

  4. I like the dialectical discussion of this article. On the one hand, from the perspective of Kant, cloning helps cure incurable diseases, which are based on saving lives. On the other hand, cloning also has many drawbacks. You mainly mentioned the failure of cloning and the human ethical category brought by cloning. I was thinking that if the cloning is under supervision and restrictions to a certain extent,whether it can eliminate and reduce the negative effects. You also mentioned utilitarianism. Whether anyone has used this technology is for profit. I think this can be expanded

    1. Thank you for your comment. The basis for supporting the development of reproductive cloning technology is Kang’s theory. The only support for the development of therapeutic cloning is due, ethically. Morality is mainly related to people who use this technology irrationally. They may be involved in utilitarianism and make moral violations for money. In addition, the ethical aspect is mainly the relationship between the social status of cloned humans and the relatives of cloned humans. What you are saying is that the government should exercise strict control, but this boundary is difficult to determine.

  5. In my view, The goal of “therapeutic cloning” is to create a library of individualized embryonic stem cells. Because embryonic stem cells have the morphological characteristics and strong differentiation ability of early embryonic cells, they can indefinitely proliferate and differentiate into more than 200 cell types throughout the body, so that they can further form any tissue or organ of the body in order to maintain the human body’s various organs. This cloning technology is even more helpful for regenerative medicine. In this way, blood cells, brain cells, bones, and internal organs can all be replaced, giving birth to hope for patients suffering from diseases such as leukemia, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease, and cancer.

    However, the impact of reproductive cloning on the legal order will cause social contradictions that can not be solved. Therefore, in the face of the development of reproductive cloning technology, we should maintain a rational attitude. On the one hand, we should not reject the benefits of technology to human beings; on the other hand, we should give sufficient attention to the social consequences of the application of reproductive cloning, and carry out full, scientific and ethical discussions. Prior to the failure to fully demonstrate the significance of this technology to human progress, it is necessary to prevent negative consequences, to sacrifice possible benefits and to control reproductive cloning by means of various means. In short, any technological progress will lead to ethical disputes, but this controversy is a wise choice for human beings to regulate their behavior.

    1. Quite professional comments about therapeutic cloning. Research about therapeutic do have benefits for people, lots of lives can be saved. And negative effects of reproductive should be taken action to avoid or mitigate, ethic issues should be tackled with. Otherwise, reproductive cannot be applied in practice.

    2. I agree with you that the therapeutic cloning can do much benefit to the human beings. And that the controversy of reproductive cloning cannot be solved by government regulation alone. However, government might play an important role and with the help of scientist, researchers and medical practicioners can make the general public aware about the pros and cons of the technology. Thank you so much for your comment. We really appreciate it

  6. I real like the introduction. To be honest, I am not very sure about what is reproductive cloning when I read the title. But, you define the difference between reproductive and therapeutic cloning in the introduction. This also attracts me to keep reading it.

    As an old saying goes, every coin has two sides. After reading the whole article, I feel both views of this article seem to make sense to some extent. But I prefer to support the view that the research of therapeutic cloning should be extended into reproductive cloning.

    As the article says, reproductive cloning is just the next step in the evolution of humans and it will be beneficial for the human.

    The view against research into reproductive cloning in this article argues that “Mendel’s genetic law points out that the genetic traits of an organism are controlled by genetic factors. The process of hybridization can increase the diversity of gene combination. However, the cloned creature is a copy of an individual and results in a completely same gene which might lead to a potential risk that the extinction of the whole clone-generated population caused by a disease.” I want to say, Mendel’s genetic law is not wrong, but it does not mean that all of humans will be created by reproductive cloning after reproductive cloning is studied. Most humans can still give birth as normal as now and the diversity of gene combination still can be increased.

    1. Thank you for providing a new perspective for this problem. Researching into reproductive cloning does not equal to applying reproductive cloning in practice. So, we can study about cloning and obtain what are really beneficial for us, avoiding the other ethic problems. For example, we can focus on gene engineering but not creating clones. I think it maybe help overcome ethic dilemma. And the only problem will be how to reduce risks during experiment process and ensure welfare of subjects.

    2. I agree with you that the reproductive cloning will be beneficial to the human beings. I like your point of how you have related the reproductive cloning to the Mendelian genetics for the support of the technology. Thank you so much for your opinion.

  7. The rapid development of therapeutic cloning technology is the dawn of clinical application, but it has also produced many social and ethical issues. The main question of therapeutic cloning justice is whether human embryos have a certain status; whether human-animal cell fusion is contrary to ethics; whether organ organizations can be enjoyed fairly; and whether therapeutic cloning leads to reproduction. We must treat life and related ethical issues with care, strictly standardize therapeutic cloning techniques; deal with the relationship between science and technology and responsibility ethics, coordinate cultural differences and value conflicts, and strengthen communication and cooperation among governments, scientists, and citizens, and establish appropriate legal.

  8. First of all, I think both the positive and negative aspects of this article are very clear.When cloning technology came out, the debate on the topic of cloning the human continues until now. Morally,reproductive cloning is regarded as an individual life and moreover, cloning a human, in people’s values is not widely accepted, especially using this technology to create a life to save another life. The movie named Blade Runner (1982), which made this moral issue more intense and sharp. And in this movie, the moral people cannot allow the cloning human have the human rights and these cloning people just live as tools to serve moral humanity. And as an engineer, it is important to decide which technology can be developed ethically. However,sometime the boundaries between technology and ethics are not clear. In other words, in practice, perhaps the boundary between black and white is not clear as the same as the movie shown. No matter which choice is made, the end result will be endured by human beings themselves.

    1. Thank you for your comment. I like the example about the movie named “Blade Runner” that you given. As you mentioned, in this film, the moral people cannot allow the cloning human have the human rights and these cloning people just live as tools to serve moral humanity. This is counter to Kantian theory and duty ethics and is also a good reason for banning this technology.

  9. It has to say cloning is a topic really worth to be discussed in ethics terms. In my opinion, the most difficult thing to avoid in cloning is the instrumentalization of human being. The point is that, cloning a person and breeding a person sexually may not has physically different. Cloning a person also need the process of preganancy and delivery, which is has no difeernece with the naturalluy birth human. However, in the process of operating clones, it is difficult to avoid attaching additional obligations to clones compared to natural persons. As a result of these additional duties are violations of human rights, so ethically, society cannot take this responsibility.

    However, it is no doubt cloning technology has brought good news for bioengineering and clinical medicine. Judgment on it is all depend on how to use it and if there is available legal and regulatory authorities of it.

    1. Quite interesting point. I don’t consider the influence of reproductive cloning on this side. As you say, the most difficult thing to avoid in cloning is the instrumentation of human being, is how to make sure the power of clones, is to ensure that there is no discrimination on clones. In essence, clones are the same to the naturally birth human. Maybe in the future, corresponding law, regulation and awareness of society can be enhanced, clones maybe have their places in the world equally to naturally birth human.

    2. I partially agree with you that society cannot solely be responsible for the clones. But the government authorities and the regulations will not be successful without the active involvement of the society. So I think if they work together this technology will benefit to the human beings. Thank you so much for your opinion.

  10. It is not easy to discuss the topic to some extend. Before people read this sensitive topic about cloning, they maybe already have strongly personal opinions and emotion. However, the discuss of this topic from different backgrounds is interesting. The main obstacles for reproductive cloning, I think, are not any technology or laws, but only virtue ethics for human beings. It is actually a question without an answer.

    1. Thank you for your comment. I know it seems to have no correct answer for this questions since everyone has their own opinion. As you said, the main obstacles for reproductive cloning are not any technology or laws, but only virtue ethics for human beings. So what I want to see is your opinion for this issue from the perspective of different ethic frameworks, for or against?

    2. Thank you for your comment. I know it seems to have no correct answer for this issue, since everyone has their own opinion. As you said, the main obstacles for reproductive cloning are not any technology or laws, but only virtue ethics for human beings. So, what I want to see is your opinion from different ethic frameworks to evaluate whether this technology should be supported or banned?

  11. This has been a very debatable issue which still has the same liveliness.

    Considering all arguments for and against, I think the ones who support reproductive cloning does not seem to be convincing. Moreover, they represent a classic cliche and out-dated arguments.

    In addition, as stated above, “the exact boundary capabilities and consequences have not been clearly defined”, which should be the strongest argument against this process. I think that we cannot begin a journey without knowing where we are going, and, most of all, in a journey that seems absolutely paradoxical. It is illogical trying to use ourselves as a laboratory instrument just for the sake of trying to better ourselves.

  12. I m not from this field but from the introduction part I m able to understand reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning.
    But there are pros and cons of reproductive cloning.

  13. I m not from this field but from the introduction part I m able to understand reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning.
    But there are pros and cons of reproductive cloning.

  14. DrPatrickJS 16th April 2018 at 7:14 pm
    I like the introduction. It’s very clear, you define what reproductive and therapeutic cloning are and ask the question that forms the crux of the article. Excellent.

    In the case for you discuss Kantian theory in depth and utilitarianism too. What about virtue ethics? Does virtue ethics support the case for?

    After my lecture today, I said that ethics helps us to make our case why we should or shouldn’t do something. As engineers we have a tendency to think about how we can do something.

    In the case against, your final paragraph opens up a host of questions.

    “Reproductive clone betrays the professional ethics and principle of engineer in the view of virtue ethics, because life and dignity of clones are damaged severely by this kind research.” – expand this, what particular virtues are betrayed? The medical practioner’s code to protect life?

    ” Besides according to utilitarianism, ethic behaviours should keep in line with the interests of most people and it approves or disapproves of an action based on the amount of pain or pleasure it bring. Therapeutic clone possibly can bring benefits to most people; however, reproductive clone is profitable for quite limited people who is rich and powerful.” This is good, you say which theory it works against and why!

    “Also, reproductive cloning uses in-vitro generation of human embryo that is killing of a life to develop or save another life which is morally unacceptable.”

    There is a heated debate on this particular topic. No need for you, or me, to enter into it but say why some object to the killing of embryos. Is is virtue ethics again?

    “Thus, research extension into reproductive clone is unethical and against engineers’ professional responsibility.” Cite from a Code of Conduct?

  15. The discussion on cloning technology has not stopped. I personally think that cloning people should be banned from any perspective, but cloning techniques which are used to protect endangered animals and plants should be used rationally because it will undoubtedly have a positive effect on the diversity of living things. As for therapeutic cloning, I don’t know much about its principles and how it works, but according to the blog, this technique has great significance for treating diseases such as heart and liver problems. If used properly, it can save tens of thousands of lives.

    1. I partially disagree with you yes reproductive cloning can benefit all the endangered animals and will be a positive effect on the living beings. But as it can benefit the animals in a similar way it can benefit the humans not in the near future but in the long run as the technology in itself has not yet been fully developed. Thank you so much for your opinion. We appreciate it.

  16. I have relatively little understanding of therapeutic and reproductive cloning. After reading this blog I learned about the difference between reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. In my opinion, I support cloning techniques, especially therapeutic cloning. Because many people have various diseases such as kidney disease. These patients need to renew their kidneys to maintain their lives. However, there are few eligible organs. Once the therapeutic clones are well developed, these patients no longer have to worry about organ problems. At the same time, I oppose reproductive cloning, which should be unique to human beings. Cloning humans and cloned humans have the same gene. This is unreasonable in human nature. Moreover, the ethical relationship between cloned and cloned people is difficult to define. This will challenge the existing ethical system.

    1. Thank you for your comment. I also agree with you for supporting therapeutic cloning. But for reproductive cloning, you think we should oppose it since the ethical relationship between cloned and cloned people is difficult to define and this will challenge the existing ethical system. But do you think it can be supported if relevant laws and regulations are enacted and controlled by governments or authorities.

  17. Reproductive cloning, based on the existing technology, scientists use human nucleus and pig cytoplasm. In this project, “manufactured” humans may be treated unequally by society, even if they are ordinary people. But I think that in addition to human cloning, we can use this technology to clone endangered animals. Although this destroys the unique characteristics of the organism, it at least retains the species. This is what I think is the benefit of reproductive cloning.

    1. I agree with you that reproductive cloning do have some drawbacks . But every technology do has some drawbacks attached to it. But every coin has two sides the benefits of the reproductive cloning cannot be ignored. And the technology has not yet been fully developed, its at its initial stage. Maybe if developed in the far future the technology itself would be a solution to its drawbacks. Thank you so much for your opinion

  18. I like the topic, but do you consider that what kind of role can the government play in this topic? Can a supervise system be established by the government? How this cloning technology by controlled? That should help the development of this technology.

    1. I think the government actually establish a supervision system, so that misuse of the technology can be prevented like it does not reach in the hands of terrorists. The government can also play a role in making the public aware about the pros and cons of the technology and its potential to benefit the human kind for the greater good.Thank you so much for your opinion. We really appreciate it.

  19. Cloning technology has always been a hot topic in the field of bio-engineering research and is also a taboo. Because its advantages and disadvantages are very obvious. It can protect endangered organisms, treat diseases that are difficult to treat with current medicine, and so on. But the problems it brings are also very obvious. Many science fiction films have discussed and presented. Personally,I believe that cloning technology should be limited in its development and must not be misused for the interests of minority or so-called curiosity.

    1. I agree with you that reproductive cloning does have its own pros and cons. And that it has benefitted endangered organisms and the field of medicine. At the same time cloning in wrong hands can do ore harm than benefit. So a strict government regulation regarding the technology is needed so that its potential can be maximised and its harm minimised.Thank you so much for your opinion. We really appreciate it.

  20. An embryo is not an accidental collection of cells. It is an organism with its own internal structure that is in a process of constant development. The embryo and the human adult are the same organism at different stages of growth and maturity.

    The embryo may not evoke the same emotional reaction as the picture of a developed foetus in the womb. But from a moral point of view, does size or appearance matter? Are not all of us “collections of cells”?

    From the moment a human embryo is formed there is a new human life that deserves the protection of the law. I believe that we have a responsibility to speak in defence of human life at all its stages and to ask our political leaders to bring forward legislation accordingly.

    This is confirmed by the widespread concern about the dangers of human cloning, not only in this country, but also in other European countries and America.

    1. That’s what we concerned. Actually, according to 14-days rule, a 14-day embryo should be treated as a new life. With current cloning technology, large amount of embryos die during the experiment. That’s the core of ethic dilemma.

  21. I support the second point of view and should not carry out reproductive cloning. Because of the 100% success of reproductive cloning, a large number of clinical trials are required. Then there will be many failed samples. Are these samples not life? Who will be responsible for their death. Since ancient times, people have been opposed to animal experiments. What’s more, this technology will also be used on humans. It can be imagined that this will cause great public opinion. And from a scientific perspective, no one can guarantee 100% success. No one knows how much to pay, if it fails.

    1. Thank you for your comment. From you comment, What you are most worried about is the safety issues during the cloning experiment and who should be responsible for which failed experiment body. It’s one of the most important barriers to limit the development of clone. From my point of view, the dangers can be reduced through the progress of clone technology, however It’s quite difficult to identify who should take responsibility for the death of experiment animals. Scientist? Investor? I think it is so complicated and requires further discussion.

  22. After reading this blog post, I had a different understanding of reproductive cloning. Countless statements died in the icy laboratory. How poor they are. I think that compared to Kant’s theory, I think even scientists’ original intentions are good. But for ordinary people, especially the people, they just saw the cruel result of death. So most people have a negative attitude toward reproductive cloning. In addition, it is the result of such an abnormal sexual reproduction that results in “clones” and he will suffer constant criticism from the community. Especially in ethical criticism, this may be fatal for his growth.

    1. In the past, Cloning experiments do have a very high risk. A large number of experimental animals die during the trial and their average life span is lower than that of naturally occurring organisms. However, we can deny technology requires a long period and lots of efforts to make a progress. Actually, clone technology has decreased risks remarkably in the past few years.

  23. I am a student studying the mass media, and gender is a kind of research topic in the media corner. However, it rarely involves cloning, even more specialized therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. I have my own opinion on this topic after reading this article. I think that whatever scientists do is for the development of science and technology, which confirms Kang’s theory. In other words, for scientists with good ethics, their behavior can be understood. Their contribution to the scientific cause should be supported. It is believed that reproductive clones should not be developed. I think it’s mainly ethical and ethical considerations. The moral aspect is that no one can die of innocent life.

    1. I don’t know what you said about “resurrect ancient people”. Do you mean through reproductive clone, we can learn more about ancient people and understand human origin and evolution better?

  24. Interesting article! People are debating on this for a long time; whether it is ethical or otherwise really depends on the purpose of it. Human reproduction is a natural phenomenon and I believe it is uncivilised for us to redefine it.

    1. You are right. Human cloning will break natural rules and bring a mess to the world if people clone human widely. That’s why most scientists, citizens and governments totally disagree and forbidden human cloning.

  25. Everything has its two sides. Science and technology is a double-edged sword. It is understood that the immaturity of cloning technology at the present stage and the impact on ethics also restrict the application of cloning technology in some fields. However, from the perspective of medicine and biodiversity conservation, cloning technology may indeed make breakthroughs in Bio-science and technology. At the same time, the great theoretical and practical value of cloning technology has brought a great upsurge to the research and development of cloning technology. I believe that people can find an appropriate scale between humanitarianism and cloning technology to achieve its ultimate service to human beings and for the purpose of human beings.

    1. That is a good point. Every technology has pros and cons. For example, steamer bring us industrial revolution, accelerating the development of technology. However, at the same time, It brings incredible damages to environment. Thus, right now, we have to consider clone technology carefully, trying to make good use of it while mitigate caused damages as more as possible.

  26. This theme is very interesting. I don’t know much about the Kant theory mentioned here. But seeing the explanation in the text I know what is Kant’s theory. I think Kant’s theory is desirable. The original intention of scientists is good. They are for scientific development. I support the development of cloning technology.

    1. Based on Kant’s theory, the research about clone aims to treat disease and protect endangered animals. We could say the action is ethic and be encouraged. But, Kant’s theory is only criteria and we should consider clone from different aspects, such as utilitarianism, consequentialism and so on.

  27. This essay attracts me a lot, it discuss about both the benefit and potential hazards of the clone technology. Every new technology is controversial, but if it is revolutionary and the harm can be limited, why not go for it?

  28. One of the best articles about cloning!Opponents of reproductive cloning object that cloning as an accepted practice would prompt people to view themselves and others as objects. It would also place great psychological stress on cloned individuals, who would need to accept that they were artificially produced and would likely spend much of their lives struggling to break out of the shadows of their genetic “parents.”.

  29. Quite like other biotechnological developments that has influence the medical field positively lately. It can be felt in disease control, retrieval of traits of a dead loved one, recall of dead great minds, reversal of fetal defect in the womb and of course tendency of human immortality.
    Though it has a lot of promise yet the success rate at the moment is low and also has the tendency to introduce epidemic outbreak if abused.
    However, it is ethically recommendable strictly for medical interventions though several religious and cultural organizations are strongly opposing it. genetic editing technology is something that must be done under strict medical guidance and legal approval.

    1. I agree with you. Lots of bio-engineering technologies develops accompany with ethic dispute. We have to treat this kind of improvement carefully , ensuring we can make good use of it without ethic, moral issues, of course law problems.

  30. This report clearly introduced me to the concept of therapeutic and reproductive cloning and the current development situation.

    As shown in this report, the main mission of reproductive cloning is associated with medical treatment. At the same time, dignity of clones should be considered.

    So, in this condition, developing the in vitro cultivation technology for single alternative organs may do contributes to reduce the conflicts and save life and dignity of clones.

    1. As the topic in itself is so controversial I think it is important to discuss the technology with various aspects before reaching into a conclusion And we tried to discuss all the different aspects of the technology . Thank you so much for your opinion. We really appreciate it.

  31. The structure of this article is clear, and the advantages and disadvantages of reproductive cloning are demonstrated in terms of both support and opposition to reproductive cologne. The words are easy to understand. It also focused on the ethical issues brought about by reproductive cloning, and some of the problems that arise from the immaturity of human reproductive cloning technology. Thanks to the author for sharing.

    1. I do agree with your point that some of the concerns that we face because of the reproductive cloning because of the people and the way they deal with it. So if proper government regulations are put forward in consideration of the technology and for the benefit of the general public this concerns can be avoided. Thank you so much for your opinion. We really appreciate it.

  32. I think the point of this issue is that if human beings use clones, they will be used as ‘tools’ at birth, and thus their status will be unequal. If a cloned human is cultivated as a donor for organ transplants or an object of human experimentation, then cloned humans have no human rights. If you clone the genes of a historical celebrity, he is born without the right to self-consciousness. If we want to guarantee the human rights of the cloned human, we cannot clone humans for the purpose of exploitation which is impossible since if there is no special purpose, why not create children in the normal way?

    1. I understand your concern about the superiority of the clones as compared to the other human beings. And it might create a feeling of unsatisfaction among the people. But at the same time we need to understand that technologies like IVF has its own limitations and this technique could be a boon for those infertile couples . Thank you so much for your opinion. We really appreciate it.

  33. I think there are various controversies and issues raised about the possibility of research into reproductive cloning. But one should consider both pros and cons without bias before arriving at a conclusion about reproductive cloning. I think reproductive cloning if carried out under jurisdiction of proper regulations can do wonders in the field of medical research

    1. I totally agree with your point that reproductive cloning if carried out under jurisdiction of proper regulations can do wonders in the field of medical research. Thank you so much for your opinion. We really appreciate it

  34. Compared to normal way to normal sexual and asexual reproduction, the final destination of cloning is using to changing and keeping the DNA of an excellent human. it is obvious that it will intensify unfairness and if the Clone has the emotion, how we treat them as. if we treat them like bots, it must contribute to they feel anger. but if they can be the normal one, they may also definitely make the vast majority of people want to improve themselves by changing DNA just like plastic surgery. it is also a crazy way for the rich.

    1. I like your point and how you have related the cloning technology to one of the existing technologies i.e. plastic surgery. But I think this technology will not only benefit the rich but also the common people in the long run. Thank you so much for your opinion

  35. I agree with your opinions. There’s will be lots of negative impacts due to cloning technology is still under development. Weather is against the ethics, there’s should some authentic organisation to give the definition and regulations.

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